7 July 2005 London bombings

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by on 30-10-2014

The 7 July 2005 London bombings (often referred to as 7/7) were a series of coordinated suicide attacks in central London, which targeted civilians using the public transport system during the morning rush hour.

On the morning of Thursday, 7 July 2005, four British Islamist men detonated four bombs—three in quick succession aboard London Underground trains across the city and, later, a fourth on a double-decker bus in Tavistock Square. As well as the four bombers, 52 civilians were killed and over 700 more were injured in the attacks, the United Kingdom’s worst terrorist incident since the 1988 Lockerbie bombing as well as the country’s first ever suicide attack.

The explosions were caused by homemade organic peroxide–based devices packed into rucksacks. The bombings were followed two weeks later by a series of attempted attacks which failed to cause injury or damage.

The 7 July attacks occurred the day after London had won its bid to host the 2012 Olympic Games, which had highlighted the city’s multicultural reputation.[1]

At 8:50 am, three bombs were detonated on board London Underground trains within fifty seconds of each other:

It was originally thought that there had been six, rather than three, explosions on the Underground network. The bus bombing brought the reported total to seven; this was clarified later in the day. The erroneous reporting can be attributed to the fact that the blasts occurred on trains that were between stations, causing wounded passengers to emerge from both stations, giving the impression that there was an incident at each. Police also revised the timings of the tube blasts: initial reports had indicated that they occurred during a period of almost half an hour. This was due to initial confusion at London Underground (LU), where the explosions were originally believed to have been caused by power surges. An early report, made in the minutes after the explosions, involved a person under a train, while another described a derailment (both of which did occur, but only as a result of the explosions). A code amber alert was declared by LU at 09:19, and LU began to cease the network’s operations, ordering trains to continue only to the next station and suspending all services.[4]

The effects of the bombs are understood to have varied due to the differing characteristics of the tunnels in which they occurred:[5]

Almost one hour after the attacks on the London Underground, a fourth bomb was detonated on the top deck of a number 30 double-decker bus, a Dennis Trident 2 (fleet number 17758, registration LX03 BUF, two years in service at the time) operated by Stagecoach London and travelling its route from Marble Arch to Hackney Wick.

Earlier, the bus had passed through the King’s Cross area as it travelled from Hackney Wick to Marble Arch. At its final destination, the bus turned around and started the return route to Hackney Wick. It left Marble Arch at 9 am and arrived at Euston bus station at 9:35 am, where crowds of people had been evacuated from the tube and were boarding buses.

The explosion at 9:47 am in Tavistock Square ripped off the roof and destroyed the rear portion of the bus. The blast took place near BMA House, the headquarters of the British Medical Association, on Upper Woburn Place. A number of doctors and medical staff in or near that building were able to provide immediate emergency assistance.

Witnesses reported seeing “half a bus flying through the air”. BBC Radio 5 Live and The Sun later reported that two injured bus passengers said that they saw a man exploding in the bus.[6]

The location of the bomb inside the bus meant the front of the vehicle remained mostly intact. Most of the passengers at the front of the top deck survived, as did those near the front of the lower deck, including the driver, but those at the rear of the bus suffered more serious injuries. The extent of the damage caused to the victims’ bodies resulted in a lengthy delay in announcing the death toll from the bombing while police determined how many bodies were present and whether the bomber was one of them. Several passers-by were also injured by the explosion and surrounding buildings were damaged by debris.

The bombed bus was subsequently covered with tarpaulin and removed by low-loader for forensic examination at a secure Ministry of Defence site. The vehicle was ultimately returned to Stagecoach and scrapped thereafter on 15 October 2009. A replacement bus, a new Alexander Dennis Enviro400 (fleet number 18500, which has been changed since to 19000, registration LX55 HGC), was named “Spirit of London”. In October 2012 the “Spirit of London” bus was set alight in an arson attack.[7] It was repaired and refurbished at a cost of £60,000 and re-entered service in April 2013. Two fourteen year old girls were convicted for the attack.[8]

All but one of the 52 victims had been residents in London during the attacks and were from a diverse range of backgrounds. Among those killed were several foreign-born British nationals, foreign exchange students, parents, and one British couple of 14 years. Due to train delays before the attacks, as well as subsequent transport issues caused by them, several victims died aboard trains and buses they would not normally have taken. Their ages ranged from 20 to 60 years old.

Aldgate:

Edgware Road:

Russell Square:

Tavistock Square:

The four suicide bombers were later identified and named as:

Three of the bombers were British-born sons of Pakistani immigrants; Lindsay was a convert born in Jamaica.

Charles Clarke, Home Secretary when the attacks occurred, described the bombers as “cleanskins”, a term describing them as previously unknown to authorities until they carried out their attacks.[11] On the day of the attacks, all four had travelled to Luton, Bedfordshire, by car, then to London by train. They were recorded on CCTV arriving at King’s Cross station at about 08:30 am.

On 12 July 2005, the BBC reported that the Metropolitan Police Service’s anti-terrorism chief Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke had said that property belonging to one of the bombers had been found at both the Aldgate and Edgware Road blasts.

Two of the bombers made videotapes describing their reasons for becoming what they called “soldiers”. In a videotape broadcast by Al Jazeera on 1 September 2005, Mohammad Sidique Khan, described his motivation. The tape had been edited and also featured al-Qaeda member—and future leader—Ayman al-Zawahiri:[12]

A second part of the tape continues

On 6 July 2006, a videotaped statement by Shehzad Tanweer was broadcast by Al-Jazeera. In the video, which may have been edited[13] to include remarks by al-Zawahiri who appeared in Khan’s video, Tanweer said:

Tanweer argued that the non-Muslims of Britain deserve such attacks because they voted for a government which “continues to oppress our mothers, children, brothers and sisters in Palestine, Afghanistan, Iraq and Chechnya.”[14]

Initial reports suggested that a power surge on the Underground power grid had caused explosions in power circuits. This was later ruled out by power suppliers National Grid. Commentators suggested that the explanation had been made because of bomb damage to power lines along the tracks; the rapid series of power failures caused by the explosions (or power being ended by means of switches at the locations to permit evacuation) looked similar, from the point of view of a control room operator, to a cascading series of circuit breaker operations that would result from a major power surge. A couple of hours after the bombings, Home Secretary Charles Clarke confirmed the incidents were terrorist attacks.[15]

Although there were security alerts at many locations throughout the United Kingdom, no other terrorist incidents occurred outside central London. Suspicious packages were destroyed in controlled explosions in Edinburgh, Brighton, Coventry, Southampton, Portsmouth, Darlington and Nottingham. Security across the country was increased to the highest alert level.

The Times reported on 17 July 2005 that police sniper units were following as many as a dozen al-Qaeda suspects in Britain. The covert armed teams were ordered to shoot to kill if surveillance suggested that a terror suspect was carrying a bomb and he refused to surrender if challenged. A member of the Metropolitan Police’s Specialist Firearms Command said: “These units are trained to deal with any eventuality. Since the London bombs they have been deployed to look at certain people.”[16]

Vodafone reported that its mobile telephone network reached capacity at about 10am on the day of the bombings, and it was forced to initiate emergency procedures to prioritise emergency calls (ACCOLC, the ‘access overload control’). Other mobile phone networks also reported failures. The BBC speculated that the telephone system was shut down by security services to prevent the possibility of mobile phones being used to trigger bombs. Although this option was considered, it became clear later that the intermittent unavailability of both mobile and landline telephone systems was due only to excessive usage. ACCOLC was activated only in a 1 km (0.6 mi) radius around Aldgate Tube Station because key emergency personnel did not have ACCOLC-enabled mobile phones.[17] The communications failures during the emergency sparked discussions to improve London’s emergency communications system.[18]

For most of the day, central London’s public transport system was largely out of service following the complete closure of the Underground, the closure of the Zone 1 bus network, and the evacuation of incident sites such as Russell Square. Bus services restarted at 4pm on 7 July, and most mainline railway stations resumed service soon afterward. River vessels were pressed into service to provide a free alternative to overcrowded trains and buses. Local lifeboats were required to act as safety boats, including the Sheerness lifeboat from the Isle of Sheppey in Kent. Thousands of people chose to walk home or to the nearest Zone 2 bus or railway station. Most of the Underground, apart from the stations affected by the bombs, resumed service the next morning, though some commuters chose to stay at home.

Much of King’s Cross railway station was also closed, with the ticket hall and waiting area being used as a makeshift hospital to treat casualties. Although the station reopened later during the day, only suburban rail services were able to use it, with Great North Eastern Railway trains terminating at Peterborough (the service was fully restored on 9 July). King’s Cross St. Pancras tube station remained available only to Metropolitan line services to facilitate the ongoing recovery and investigation for a week, though Victoria line services were restored on 15 July and the Northern line on 18 July. St. Pancras station, located next to King’s Cross, was shut on the afternoon of the attacks, with all Midland Mainline trains terminating at Leicester, causing disruption to services to Sheffield, Nottingham and Derby.

By 25 July there were still disruptions to the Piccadilly line (which was not running between Arnos Grove and Hyde Park Corner in either direction), the Hammersmith & City line (which was only running a shuttle service between Hammersmith and Paddington) and the Circle line (which was suspended in its entirety). The Metropolitan line resumed services between Moorgate and Aldgate on 25 July. The Hammersmith & City line was also operating a peak-hours service between Whitechapel and Baker Street. Most of the remainder of the Underground network was however operating normally.

On 2 August the Hammersmith & City line resumed normal service; the Circle line was still suspended, though all Circle line stations are also served by other lines. The Piccadilly line service resumed on 4 August.

There were limited reactions to the attack in the world economy as measured by financial market and exchange rate activity. The value of the British pound decreased 0.89 cents to a 19-month low against the US dollar. The FTSE 100 Index fell by about 200 points during the two hours after the first attack. This was its greatest decrease since the invasion of Iraq, and it triggered the London Stock Exchange’s ‘Special Measures’, restricting panic selling and aimed at ensuring market stability. By the time the market closed it had recovered to only 71.3 points (1.36%) down on the previous day’s three-year closing high. Markets in France, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain also closed about 1% down on the day.

US market indexes increased slightly, partly because the dollar index increased sharply against the pound and the euro. The Dow Jones Industrial Average gained 31.61 to 10,302.29. The NASDAQ Composite Index increased 7.01 to 2075.66. The S&P 500 increased 2.93 points to 1197.87 after decreasing as much as 1%. Every benchmark value gained 0.3%.[19]

The market values increased again on 8 July as it became clear that the damage caused by the bombings was not as great as thought initially. By end of trading the market had recovered fully to above its level at start of trading on 7 July. Insurers in the UK tend to reinsure their terrorist liabilities in excess of the first £75,000,000 with Pool Re, a mutual insurer established by the government with major insurers. Pool Re has substantial reserves and newspaper reports indicated that claims would easily be funded.

On 9 July, the Bank of England, HM Treasury and the Financial Services Authority revealed that they had instigated contingency plans immediately after the attacks to ensure that the UK financial markets could keep trading. This involved the activation of a “secret chatroom” on the British government’s Financial Sector Continuity website, which allowed the institutions to communicate with the country’s banks and market dealers.[20]

Continuous news coverage of the attacks was broadcast throughout 7 July, by both BBC One and ITV1, uninterrupted until 7 p.m. Sky News did not broadcast any advertisements for 24 hours. ITN confirmed later that its coverage on ITV1 was its longest uninterrupted on-air broadcast of its 50-year history. Television coverage was notable for the use of mobile telephone footage sent in by members of the public and live pictures from traffic CCTV cameras.

The BBC Online website recorded an all-time bandwidth peak of 11 Gb/s at midday on 7 July. BBC News received some 1 billion total accesses throughout the course of the day (including all images, text and HTML), serving some 5.5 terabytes of data. At peak times during the day there were 40,000-page requests per second for the BBC News website. The previous day’s announcement of the 2012 Summer Olympics being awarded to London resulted in up to 5 Gb/s. The previous all time maximum for the website followed the announcement of the Michael Jackson verdict, which used 7.2 Gb/s.[21]

On 12 July it was reported that the British National Party released leaflets showing images of the ‘No. 30 bus’ after it was destroyed. The slogan, “Maybe now it’s time to start listening to the BNP” was printed beside the photo. Home Secretary Charles Clarke described it as an attempt by the BNP to “cynically exploit the current tragic events in London to further their spread of hatred”.[22]

Some media outside the UK complained that successive British governments had been unduly tolerant towards radical Islamist militants, so long as they were involved in activities outside the UK.[23] Britain’s reluctance to extradite or prosecute terrorist suspects resulted in London being dubbed Londonistan.[24]

Even before the identity of the bombers became known, former Metropolitan Police commissioner Lord Stevens said he believed they were almost certainly born or based in Britain, and would not “fit the caricature al-Qaeda fanatic from some backward village in Algeria or Afghanistan”.[25] The attacks would have required extensive preparation and prior reconnaissance efforts, and a familiarity with bomb-making and the London transport network as well as access to significant amounts of bomb-making equipment and chemicals.

Some newspaper editorials in Iran blamed the bombing on British or American authorities seeking to further justify the War on Terror, and claimed that the plan that included the bombings also involved increasing harassment of Muslims in Europe.[26]

On 13 August 2005, quoting police and MI5 sources, The Independent reported that the bombers acted independently of an al-Qaeda terror mastermind some place abroad.[27]

On 1 September it was reported that al-Qaeda officially claimed responsibility for the attacks in a videotape broadcast by the Arab television network Al Jazeera. However, an official inquiry by the British government reported that the tape claiming responsibility had been edited after the attacks, and that the bombers did not have direct assistance from al-Qaeda.[28] Zabi uk-Taifi, an al-Qaeda commander arrested in Pakistan in January 2009, may have had connections to the bombings, according to Pakistani intelligence sources.[29] More recently, documents found by German authorities on a terrorist suspect arrested in Berlin in May 2011 have suggested that Rashid Rauf, a British al Qaeda operative, played a key role in planning the attacks.[30]

A second claim of responsibility was posted on the Internet by another al-Qaeda-linked group, Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigades. The group had, however, previously falsely claimed responsibility for events that were the result of technical problems, such as the 2003 London blackout and the US Northeast blackout of 2003.[31]

A survey of 500 British Muslims undertaken by Channel 4 News found that 24% believed the four bombers blamed for the attacks did not perform them.[32] In 2006, the government had refused to hold a public inquiry, stating that “it would be a ludicrous diversion”. Prime Minister Tony Blair said an independent inquiry would “undermine support” for MI5, while the leader of the opposition, David Cameron, said only a full inquiry would “get to the truth”.[33] In reaction to revelations about the extent of security service investigations into the bombers prior to the attack, the Shadow Home Secretary, David Davis, said: “It is becoming more and more clear that the story presented to the public and Parliament is at odds with the facts.”[34] However, the decision against an independent public inquest was later reversed. A full public inquest into the bombings was subsequently begun from October 2010. Coroner Lady Justice Hallett stated that the inquest would examine how each victim died and whether MI5, if it had worked better, could have prevented the attack.[35]

There have been various conspiracy theories proposed about the bombings, including the suggestion that the bombers were ‘patsies’, based on claims about timings of the trains and the train from Luton, supposed explosions underneath the carriages, and allegations of the faking of the one time-stamped and dated photograph of the bombers at Luton station.[36][37] Claims made by one theorist in the Internet video 7/7 Ripple Effect were examined by the BBC documentary series The Conspiracy Files, in an episode titled “7/7″ first broadcast on 30 June 2009, which debunked many of the video’s claims.[38]

On the day of the bombings Peter Power of Visor Consultants gave interviews on BBC Radio 5 Live and ITV saying that he was working on a crisis management simulation drill, in the City of London, “based on simultaneous bombs going off precisely at the railway stations where it happened this morning”, when he heard that an attack was going on in real life. He described this as a coincidence. He also gave an interview to the Manchester Evening News where he spoke of “an exercise involving mock broadcasts when it happened for real”.[39] After a few days he dismissed it as a “spooky coincidence” on Canadian TV.[40]

Alexander Litvinenko claimed that Vladimir Putin was the “originator” of the bombings, and added, “And I am sure, that there will be no prosecutions of Moslems after the event.” [41]

Initially, there was much confused information from police sources as to the origin, method, and even timings of the explosions. Forensic examiners had thought initially that military-grade plastic explosives were used, though they were later determined to be composed of high-concentration organic peroxide, which detonates similarly to TNT, and, as the blasts were thought to have been simultaneous, that synchronised timed detonators were employed. This hypothesis changed as more information became available. Home-made organic peroxide-based devices were used, according to a May 2006 report from the British government’s Intelligence and Security Committee.[42]

Fifty-six people, including the four suicide bombers, were killed by the attacks[43] and about 700 were injured, of whom about 100 were hospitalised for at least one night. The incident was the deadliest single act of terrorism in the United Kingdom since the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, which killed 270 people,[44] and the deadliest bombing in London since the Second World War.[45]

Police examined about 2,500 items of CCTV footage and forensic evidence from the scenes of the attacks. The bombs were probably placed on the floors of the trains and bus.

Investigators identified four men who they alleged had been the suicide bombers. This made the bombings the first ever suicide attack in the British Isles.[46] Nicolas Sarkozy, the interior minister and future President of France, caused consternation at the British Home Office when he briefed the press that one of the names had been described the previous year at an Anglo-French security meeting as an asset of British intelligence. Home Secretary Charles Clarke said later that this was “not his recollection.”

Vincent Cannistraro, former head of the Central Intelligence Agency’s anti-terrorism centre, told The Guardian that “two unexploded bombs” were recovered as well as “mechanical timing devices”, although this claim was explicitly rejected by London’s Metropolitan Police Service.[47]

West Yorkshire Police raided six properties in the Leeds area on 12 July: two houses in Beeston, two in Thornhill, one in Holbeck and one in Alexandra Grove in Hyde Park, Leeds. One man was arrested. Officers also raided a residential property on Northern Road in the Buckinghamshire town of Aylesbury on 13 July.

The police service say a significant amount of explosive material was found in the Leeds raids and a controlled explosion was carried out at one of the properties. Explosives were also found in the vehicle associated with one of the bombers, Shehzad Tanweer, at Luton railway station and subjected to controlled explosion.[6][48][49][50]

There was speculation about a possible association between the bombers and another alleged Islamist cell in Luton which was ended during August 2004. The Luton group was uncovered after Muhammad Naeem Noor Khan was arrested in Lahore, Pakistan. His laptop computer was said to contain plans for tube attacks in London, as well as attacks on financial buildings in New York City and Washington, D.C. The group was subject to surveillance but on 2 August 2004 The New York Times published Khan’s name, citing Pakistani sources. The news leak forced police in Britain and Canada to make arrests before their investigations were complete. The US government later said they had given the name to some journalists as “background information”, for which Tom Ridge, the US homeland security secretary, apologised.

When the Luton cell was ended, one of the London bombers, Mohammad Sidique Khan (no known relation), was scrutinised briefly by MI5 who determined that he was not a likely threat and he was not surveilled.[51]

On 22 March 2007, three men were arrested in connection with the bombings. Two were arrested at 1 pm at Manchester Airport, attempting to board a flight bound for Pakistan that afternoon. They were apprehended by undercover officers who had been following the men as part of a surveillance operation. They had not intended to arrest the men that day, but believed they could not risk letting the suspects leave the country. A third man was arrested in the Beeston area of Leeds at an address on the street where one of the suicide bombers had lived before the attacks.[52]

On 9 May 2007 police made four further arrests, three in Yorkshire and one in Selly Oak, Birmingham. Hasina Patel, widow of the presumed ringleader Mohammed Sidique Khan, was among those arrested for “commissioning, preparing or instigating acts of terrorism”.[53]

Three of those arrested, including Patel, were released on 15 May.[53] The fourth, Khalid Khaliq, an unemployed single father of three, was charged on 17 July 2007 with possessing an al-Qaeda training manual, but the charge was not related to the 2005 London attacks. Conviction for possession of a document containing information likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism carried a maximum ten-year jail sentence.[54]

Abdullah el-Faisal was deported to Jamaica, his country of origin, from Britain on 25 May 2006 after reaching the parole date in his prison sentence. He was found guilty of three charges of soliciting the murder of Jews, Americans and Hindus and two charges of using threatening words to incite racial hatred in 2003 and, despite an appeal, was sentenced to seven years imprisonment. In 2006 John Reid alleged to MPs that el-Faisal had influenced Jamaican-born Briton Germaine Lindsay into participating in the 7/7 bombings.[55][56]

The Guardian reported 3 May 2007 that police had investigated Mohammad Sidique Khan twice during 2005. The newspaper said it “learned that on 27 January 2005, police took a statement from the manager of a garage in Leeds which had loaned Khan a courtesy car while his vehicle was being repaired.” It also said that “on the afternoon of 3 February an officer from Scotland Yard’s anti-terrorism branch carried out inquiries with the company which had insured a car in which Khan was seen driving almost a year earlier”. Nothing about these inquiries appeared in the report by Parliament’s intelligence and security committee after it investigated the 7 July attacks. Scotland Yard described the 2005 inquiries as “routine”, while security sources said they were related to the fertiliser bomb plot.

While no warnings before the 7 July bombings have been documented officially or acknowledged, the following are sometimes quoted as indications either of the events to come or of some foreknowledge.

The Daily Telegraph reported that radical imam Anwar al-Awlaki inspired the bombers.[62] The bombers transcribed lectures of al-Awlaki while plotting the bombings. His materials were found in the possession of accused accomplices of the suicide bombers. Awlaki has also been linked to the 2006 Ontario terrorism plot in Canada, the 2007 Fort Dix attack plot in New Jersey, the 2009 Fort Hood shooting in Texas, and the failed attack on Northwest Airlines Flight 253, a commercial flight from Amsterdam to Detroit, on Christmas Day, 2009.[63] Al-Awlaki was killed by a US drone attack in 2011.

In October 2010 an independent coroner’s inquest of the bombings began.[64] Lady Justice Hallett was appointed to hear the inquest, which would consider both whether the attacks were preventable, and the emergency service response to them.

After seven months of evidence and deliberation, the verdict of the inquiry was released and read in the Houses of Parliament on 9 May 2011. It determined that the 52 victims had been unlawfully killed; their deaths could not have been prevented, and they would probably have died “whatever time the emergency services reached and rescued them”. Hallett concluded that MI5 had not made every possible improvement since the attacks but that it was not “right or fair” to say more attention should have been paid to ringleader Mohammad Sidique Khan prior to 7 July. She also decided that there should be no public inquiry.[65][66]

The report provided nine recommendations to various bodies:[67]

It was revealed in July 2011 that relatives of some of the victims of the bombings may have had their telephones accessed by the News of the World in the aftermath of the attacks. The revelations added to an existing controversy over phone hacking by the tabloid newspaper.

The fathers of two victims, one in the Edgware Road blast and another at Russell Square, told the BBC that police officers investigating the alleged hacking had warned them that their contact details were found on a target list, while a former firefighter who helped injured passengers escape from Edgware Road also said he had been contacted by police who were looking into the hacking allegations.[68] A number of survivors from the bombed trains also revealed that police had warned them their phones may have been accessed and their messages intercepted, and in some cases officers advised them to change security codes and PIN numbers.[69][70][71]

Since the bombings, the United Kingdom and other nations have honoured the victims in several ways. Most of these memorials have included moments of silence, candlelit vigils, and the laying of flowers at the attack sites. Foreign leaders have also remembered the dead by ordering their flags to be flown at half-mast, signing books of condolences at embassies of the UK, and issuing messages of support and condolences to the British people.

The government ordered the Union Flag to be flown at half-mast on 8 July.[72] The following day, the Bishop of London led prayers for the victims during a service paying tribute to the role of women during the Second World War. A vigil, called by the Stop the War Coalition, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and Muslim Association of Britain, was held from 5 pm, at Friends Meeting House on Euston Road.

A two-minute silence was held on 14 July 2005 throughout Europe.[73] Thousands attended a vigil at 6 pm on Trafalgar Square. After an initial silence there was a series of speakers for two hours. A memorial service was held at St Paul’s Cathedral on 1 November 2005.[74] To mark the first anniversary of the attack, a two-minute silence was observed at midday across the country.[75]

A permanent memorial was unvelied in 2009 by Prince Charles in Hyde Park to mark the fourth anniversary of the bombings.[76] On the eve of the ninth anniversary of the attacks in 2014 the memorial was defaced with messages including “Blair lied, thousands died”. The graffiti were removed within hours.[77]

During the opening ceremony of the 2012 Olympic Games in London a minute’s silence was held to commemorate those killed in the attacks.

US President George W. Bush visited the British embassy the day after the bombings, upon his return from the G8 summit in Scotland, and signed a book of condolence.[78] In Washington, D.C., the US Army band played God Save the Queen (the British national anthem, the melody of which is also used in an American patriotic hymn, My Country, ‘Tis of Thee), a suggestion that US Army Veteran John Miska made to Vice Chief of Staff General Cody, outside the British embassy in the city.[79] On 12 July, a Detroit Symphony Orchestra brass ensemble played the British national anthem during the pre-game festivities of the Major League Baseball All-Star Game at Comerica Park in Detroit.[80]

Flags were ordered to fly at half-mast across Australia, New Zealand[81] and Canada.[82] The Union Flag was raised to half-mast alongside the Flag of Australia on Sydney Harbour Bridge as a show of “sympathy between nations”.[83]

Moments of silence were observed in the European Parliament, the Polish parliament and by the Irish government[84] on 14 July, at the same time as in the United Kingdom.[citation needed] The British national anthem was played at the changing of the royal guard at Plaza de Oriente in Madrid in memorial to the victims of the attacks. The ceremony was attended by the British ambassador to Spain and members of the Spanish Royal Family. After the 2004 Madrid train bombings, the UK had hosted a similar ceremony at Buckingham Palace.[85]

Priceless Qualities Of Achievers!

Filed Under (Communication Skills Training) by on 28-10-2014

Priceless Qualities of Achievers!

by

darelene fuller

Jeremy Dack is Iberian Adventures Co-Founder. Venezuelan-born and British-bred, Jeremy has lived around the world, including the UK, Portugal, Spain, Singapore, the Philippines, Japan and the USA, and traveled widely in Southeast Asia. An avid hiker, climber and mountain biker, Jeremy Dack has worked as a teacher, translator and guide in Japan, Spain and Portugal for over 15 years, and is a co-founder of Iberian Adventures.

Iberian Adventures began life in 1992 as Morespin Ecotours, established in collaboration with “Enlace 92″ – a Madrid-based private foundation for the promotion of tourism, sports and international communication. At that time, Jeremy Dack and Josefina were living in the “Japan Alps”, in the province of Nagano – the 1998 Winter Olympic site – working as training instructors, teaching survival language skills and cultural adaptation techniques to prospective overseas aid volunteers for JOCV (Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers) – the Japanese equivalent of the USA’s Peace Corps and the UK’s VSO. Jeremy Dack and Josefina s first tours focussed on “green” outdoor, educational and cultural activities in the mountains of the Sierra de Gredos in Central Spain, and were run for small groups of Japanese hungry for alternatives to the mass tourism approach so popular in their country. Over the following years, their concept and product have been continually evolving, and with their move back to Spain in 1997 after over 11 years in Japan, they founded Iberian Adventures with the objective of enabling English speakers to experience Spain the way they like to.

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Jennifer Dack is Elite Print Services Public Relations Manager. Founded in Muncie, Indiana in 1978 as a regional business forms re-seller (with only three employees), today Elite Print Services, Inc. (EPS) is among the largest corporate print distributors in the United States. Aided by a loyal customer base and a results-driven business philosophy, Elite has undergone a continuous evolution to become an integrated print solutions provider serving a diverse, national client base (with the help of a workforce of over 50 employees). Utilizing three separate business divisions united by a common purpose and mind boggling hard work demonstrated by Jennifer Dack and team, Elite possesses the capabilities necessary to respond to a wide variety of business document and information processing needs. Jennifer Dack is strongly of the opinion that, Encourage people to suggest possible solutions to each problem that they are putting up

David Dack is Aero Tec Laboratories VP Sales. Aero Tech Laboratories doesn’t want your bladder to burst. The company makes high-tech fuel bladders and tanks that are designed to stop leaks and keep fuel in the tanks of airplanes, helicopters, and cars. Originally designed for aerospace use, the bladders have migrated to the racetrack and are being tested for use in passenger cars. Aero Tech also makes fuel cell bladders, tanker truck bladders, containment berms, and self-sealing ballistic fuel tanks. David Dack is of the opinion that, Your dealership will be like a rice bowl or a rust bowl depending upon your attitude of today

I love to research about great personalities and learn about. I appreciate

David Dack

,

Jennifer Dack

and

Jeremy Dack

for their amazing contribution in their field.

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ArticleRich.com

Michigan coaching icon Bo Schembechler dies

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by on 28-10-2014

Thursday, November 23, 2006 

Renowned University of Michigan college football coach Bo Schembechler, died Friday at the age of 77.

Schembechler collapsed at the studios of WXYZ-TV after taping a TV show on the eve of the Wolverines’ No. 1 vs. No. 2 showdown with perennial rival Ohio State. He was taken by ambulance to the hospital where he died at 11:42 a.m. “The electrical part of the heart was working fine but the mechanical part was not working,” said Dr. Shukri David, the head of cardiology at Providence Hospital. “The heart was sending signals to the heart muscle to contract. The muscle was not responding.”

Schembechler had a heart attack on the eve of his first Rose Bowl in 1970 and another one in 1987. He had two quadruple heart-bypass operations, and doctors implanted a pacemaker to regulate his heartbeat after he became ill during a taping at WXYZ on Oct. 20.

“This is a tremendous shock and an irreplaceable loss,” University of Michigan president Mary Sue Coleman said at a news conference at Providence Hospital in Southfield, where the coach died.

The seven-time Big Ten coach of the year compiled a 194-48-5 record at Michigan from 1969-89. Schembechler’s record in 26 years of coaching was 234-65-8.

New Jersey to consider bikini waxing ban

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by on 28-10-2014

Friday, March 20, 2009 

New Jersey is considering a state-wide ban on Brazilian waxes, the removal of hair from the bikini area.

Although genital waxing has never really been allowed in the state, the New Jersey Board of Cosmetology and Hairstyling plans to propose a ban with more specific legal wording, in response to two women who reported being injured during a wax. The board will consider the proposal at their next meeting on April 14.

If the measure passes, New Jersey may become the only US state to ban the practice outright.

Although millions of Americans engage in bikini waxes, which generally cost between $50 and $60 per session, the practice comes with risks. Skin care experts say the hot wax can irritate delicate skin in the bikini area, and result in infections, ingrown hairs and rashes.

Waxing on the face, neck, abdomen, legs and arms would continue to be permitted in the state under the proposed ban. Although New Jersey statutes have always banned bikini waxing, the laws were unclear and seldom enforced.

As a result, many salons from around the state have offered bikini waxing for years. Many salon owners spoke out against the proposed ban, which they said would severely damage their business.

“I really don’t know if the state can stop it at this point,” said Valentia Chistova, owner of the Monmouth County salon Brazil. “I know a lot of women who are really hooked.”

New Jersey to consider bikini waxing ban

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by on 28-10-2014

Friday, March 20, 2009 

New Jersey is considering a state-wide ban on Brazilian waxes, the removal of hair from the bikini area.

Although genital waxing has never really been allowed in the state, the New Jersey Board of Cosmetology and Hairstyling plans to propose a ban with more specific legal wording, in response to two women who reported being injured during a wax. The board will consider the proposal at their next meeting on April 14.

If the measure passes, New Jersey may become the only US state to ban the practice outright.

Although millions of Americans engage in bikini waxes, which generally cost between $50 and $60 per session, the practice comes with risks. Skin care experts say the hot wax can irritate delicate skin in the bikini area, and result in infections, ingrown hairs and rashes.

Waxing on the face, neck, abdomen, legs and arms would continue to be permitted in the state under the proposed ban. Although New Jersey statutes have always banned bikini waxing, the laws were unclear and seldom enforced.

As a result, many salons from around the state have offered bikini waxing for years. Many salon owners spoke out against the proposed ban, which they said would severely damage their business.

“I really don’t know if the state can stop it at this point,” said Valentia Chistova, owner of the Monmouth County salon Brazil. “I know a lot of women who are really hooked.”

Payday Loans: Handle All The Financial Worries Quickly

Filed Under (Cars) by on 28-10-2014

Payday Loans: Handle all the financial worries quickly

by

Borton Stevens

Payday loans have emerged as a perfect solution for salaried people. Usually, salaried people work for a whole month and get paid in the first week of next month. Unexpected expenses always tease UK citizens in the middle of the month but situation goes out of control when you can not ignore those expenses at all. Following are the sudden expenses which you can not afford to ignore:

-Medical or hospital expense

-Car repair bill

-Examination fee

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-Rent, insurance premium, credit cards payments and many more

It is not possible for any individual to wait for next payday especially when above expenses are knocking the door. In situation, when you need money immediately, people like to go with quick payday loans. The best part of this cash is that consumers can obtain the loan amount when they need it and pay it back as per their payday. In other words, salaried people borrow the funds to bridge the gap between unanticipated requirements and short of funds. This finance contains various other advantages as well for needy people for example:

-Applicants are not required to deposit any security against the cash

-If you provide authentic and genuine details then you can get the money on the same day of application

-Lenders do not perform credit check or verify your past credit history

-Borrowers do not need to visit any lender or bank personally for making application. You can apply for the finance with the help of lender s website. Here, you have to submit a simple and easy online application form

In current scenario, lenders are more concerned about the comfort of loan seekers. In tough market situation, they can not afford to miss a single consumer that s why banks provide best facilities with payday loans. In order to grab the required amount immediately, you have to fulfill the following conditions:

-Borrowers should have UK citizenship

-Your age should be 18 years old or more at time obtaining cash

-Bank account in UK is another priority for transferring the funds

-In the absence of collateral and credit check, you have to prove the repayment capability with the help your monthly salary.

Borton Stevens is an expert author and has more then 7 years of experience in writing finance related topics. To know more about

Payday Loans

Visit:

loansz.co.uk/

Article Source:

ArticleRich.com

Comments:Zenit rocket launches AMOS-3 satellite

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by on 28-10-2014

Cosmetics Registration in China If your company has some varieties?including pharmaceutical products,health products,medical devices,cosmetics & personal care products?,which have not entered China market and would like to open it, please feel free to contact us, as our professional and close services will help you a lot in opening China market,especially in the course of cosmetics registration in China. For the mode of cooperation and cooperation process, please explore our website: http://www.gjmedicine.com

About Guojian Guangzhou Guojian Medicine Consulting Service Co.,Ltd?GJMC?is a certified consulting company specialized in providing cost-effective services of registration of import pharmaceutical products, heath products, medical devices, cosmetic products. Our main services are to help pharmaceutical enterprises all over the world complete the intricate and tedious registering and licensing work before the products entering China market,and help them seek excellent agents in China, so that they could quickly enter and occupy China market better.

Our advantages: First ,GJMC has a good interpersonal network in pharmaceutical industry. Second, GJMC has a filiale ,Guangzhou Haoyang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd,who is devoting to helping pharmaceutical enterprises all over the world search excellent agents?distributors?in China. Third, GJMC has a professional and talented team composed of experienced pharmaceutical experts,clinical experts and consulting experts. Fourth,our head office locate opposite to Guangdong Food and Drug Administration.And the Beijing office is near to SFDA.Besides,we can deeply apprehend the policy essence,as well as master the standardized and highly efficient registering skills. With these advantages,we can help you a lot with the procedure of cosmetics registration in China. Contact us Tel: 86-20-883 772 86 Skype?gjmedicine Msn?gjmedicinegz@live.cn Email: info@gjmedicine.com website?http://www.gjmedicine.com Pricipals: Minyen Shieh,Tony Yung Addr:Suite 205, Guangdong Foreign Trade Buiding?Section B?No.774 DongfengDong road, Guangzhou 510087, P. R. China

Health product Registration in China If your company has some varieties?including pharmaceutical products,health products,medical devices,cosmetics & personal care products?,which have not entered China market and would like to open it, please feel free to contact us, as our professional and close services will help you a lot in opening China market,especially in the course of health product registration in China. For the mode of cooperation and cooperation process, please explore our website: http://www.gjmedicine.com

About Guojian Guangzhou Guojian Medicine Consulting Service Co.,Ltd?GJMC?is a certified consulting company specialized in providing cost-effective services of registration of import pharmaceutical products, heath products, medical devices, cosmetic products. Our main services are to help pharmaceutical enterprises all over the world complete the intricate and tedious registering and licensing work before the products entering China market,and help them seek excellent agents in China, so that they could quickly enter and occupy China market better.

Our advantages: First ,GJMC has a good interpersonal network in pharmaceutical industry. Second, GJMC has a filiale ,Guangzhou Haoyang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd,who is devoting to helping pharmaceutical enterprises all over the world search excellent agents?distributors?in China. Third, GJMC has a professional and talented team composed of experienced pharmaceutical experts,clinical experts and consulting experts. Fourth,our head office locate opposite to Guangdong Food and Drug Administration.And the Beijing office is near to SFDA.Besides,we can deeply apprehend the policy essence,as well as master the standardized and highly efficient registering skills. With these advantages,we can help you a lot with the procedure of health product registration in China. Contact us Tel: 86-20-883 772 86 Skype?gjmedicine Msn?gjmedicinegz@live.cn Email: info@gjmedicine.com website?http://www.gjmedicine.com Pricipals: Minyen Shieh,Tony Yung Addr:Suite 205, Guangdong Foreign Trade Buiding?Section B?No.774 DongfengDong road, Guangzhou 510087, P. R. China

Health product Registration in China If your company has some varieties?including pharmaceutical products,health products,medical devices,cosmetics & personal care products?,which have not entered China market and would like to open it, please feel free to contact us, as our professional and close services will help you a lot in opening China market,especially in the course of health product registration in China. For the mode of cooperation and cooperation process, please explore our website: http://www.gjmedicine.com

About Guojian Guangzhou Guojian Medicine Consulting Service Co.,Ltd?GJMC?is a certified consulting company specialized in providing cost-effective services of registration of import pharmaceutical products, heath products, medical devices, cosmetic products. Our main services are to help pharmaceutical enterprises all over the world complete the intricate and tedious registering and licensing work before the products entering China market,and help them seek excellent agents in China, so that they could quickly enter and occupy China market better.

Our advantages: First ,GJMC has a good interpersonal network in pharmaceutical industry. Second, GJMC has a filiale ,Guangzhou Haoyang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd,who is devoting to helping pharmaceutical enterprises all over the world search excellent agents?distributors?in China. Third, GJMC has a professional and talented team composed of experienced pharmaceutical experts,clinical experts and consulting experts. Fourth,our head office locate opposite to Guangdong Food and Drug Administration.And the Beijing office is near to SFDA.Besides,we can deeply apprehend the policy essence,as well as master the standardized and highly efficient registering skills. With these advantages,we can help you a lot with the procedure of health product registration in China. Contact us Tel: 86-20-883 772 86 Skype?gjmedicine Msn?gjmedicinegz@live.cn Email: info@gjmedicine.com website?http://www.gjmedicine.com Pricipals: Minyen Shieh,Tony Yung Addr:Suite 205, Guangdong Foreign Trade Buiding?Section B?No.774 DongfengDong road, Guangzhou 510087, P. R. China

Health product Registration in China If your company has some varieties?including pharmaceutical products,health products,medical devices,cosmetics & personal care products?,which have not entered China market and would like to open it, please feel free to contact us, as our professional and close services will help you a lot in opening China market,especially in the course of health product registration in China. For the mode of cooperation and cooperation process, please explore our website: http://www.gjmedicine.com

About Guojian Guangzhou Guojian Medicine Consulting Service Co.,Ltd?GJMC?is a certified consulting company specialized in providing cost-effective services of registration of import pharmaceutical products, heath products, medical devices, cosmetic products. Our main services are to help pharmaceutical enterprises all over the world complete the intricate and tedious registering and licensing work before the products entering China market,and help them seek excellent agents in China, so that they could quickly enter and occupy China market better.

Our advantages: First ,GJMC has a good interpersonal network in pharmaceutical industry. Second, GJMC has a filiale ,Guangzhou Haoyang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd,who is devoting to helping pharmaceutical enterprises all over the world search excellent agents?distributors?in China. Third, GJMC has a professional and talented team composed of experienced pharmaceutical experts,clinical experts and consulting experts. Fourth,our head office locate opposite to Guangdong Food and Drug Administration.And the Beijing office is near to SFDA.Besides,we can deeply apprehend the policy essence,as well as master the standardized and highly efficient registering skills. With these advantages,we can help you a lot with the procedure of health product registration in China. Contact us Tel: 86-20-883 772 86 Skype?gjmedicine Msn?gjmedicinegz@live.cn Email: info@gjmedicine.com website?http://www.gjmedicine.com Pricipals: Minyen Shieh,Tony Yung Addr:Suite 205, Guangdong Foreign Trade Buiding?Section B?No.774 DongfengDong road, Guangzhou 510087, P. R. China —Preceding unsigned comment added by 61.140.103.41 (talk) 08:30, 17 May 2008 (UTC)

Two San Diego art museums receive $40 million art collection

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by on 28-10-2014

Sunday, March 25, 2012 

Two museums in San Diego, California have been bequested an art collection worth more than $40 million. The art collection was donated by Dr. Vance E. Kondon and Elisabeth Giesberger to both the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego and the San Diego Museum of Art.

Kondon, a former board member of the Museum of Contemporary Art, died in 1997 and Giesberger died in 2011. Kondon was a notable art collector in San Diego, and collected for over 30 years. Roxana Velásquez, SDMA executive director, described their bequeathed collection’s “rarity” and said the pieces would add “depth” to the two existing museum collections.

The collection will be separated between the two museums due to the art movements represented within it. The Museum of Contemporary Art will receive 30 contemporary works by artists such as Franz Kline, Christo, and Craig Kauffman. The Museum of Art was bequeathed 48 German Expressionist paintings, drawings and prints. This collection includes artworks by Otto Dix, Gustav Klimt, and Egon Schiele.

Two San Diego art museums receive $40 million art collection

Filed Under (Uncategorized) by on 28-10-2014

Sunday, March 25, 2012 

Two museums in San Diego, California have been bequested an art collection worth more than $40 million. The art collection was donated by Dr. Vance E. Kondon and Elisabeth Giesberger to both the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego and the San Diego Museum of Art.

Kondon, a former board member of the Museum of Contemporary Art, died in 1997 and Giesberger died in 2011. Kondon was a notable art collector in San Diego, and collected for over 30 years. Roxana Velásquez, SDMA executive director, described their bequeathed collection’s “rarity” and said the pieces would add “depth” to the two existing museum collections.

The collection will be separated between the two museums due to the art movements represented within it. The Museum of Contemporary Art will receive 30 contemporary works by artists such as Franz Kline, Christo, and Craig Kauffman. The Museum of Art was bequeathed 48 German Expressionist paintings, drawings and prints. This collection includes artworks by Otto Dix, Gustav Klimt, and Egon Schiele.

Top Hotels In Manali As Staying Option For The Not So Budget Travellers

Filed Under (Weather) by on 28-10-2014

Submitted by: The Himalayan

For most of us holidays means relaxing, fun, adventure and of course if it all this comes with a dash of comfort and luxury it would be the perfect vacation. And it is always not a great idea to stick to a budget and we all deserve a good break from the mundane life, so why not book a holiday in any of the tops hotels in Manali? Manali is well-known for its splendid natural beauty and awesome climatic condition but one cannot ignore the valley s hospitality. The top notch services and facilities offered in some of the top resorts in Manali will certainly add more cheer to your vacation.

Some of the facilities and services offered by the top hotels and top resorts in Manali:

Most top resorts in Manali are situated amidst the lap of serene nature and that sure will fill your heart, mind, body and soul with unending pleasure and happiness

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The 4-star hotels in Manali offer some exciting packages that normally include food, accommodation, transportation, adventure activities and sightseeing, thus such packages make a lot of sense and in fact are true value for your money.

The resorts and top hotels in Manali offer 24/7 services and great facilities such as cable tv, wooden floor, bath tub, internet, Jacuzzi, swimming pool, room-heaters, laundry services, mini-bar in the room, play area for the kids, holiday activity room etc are some of the facilities you can enjoy in these resorts or hotels.

And there are super saver packages offered by some of the resorts in Manali offer even more facilities and services that will make for a luxurious holiday.

Indeed to encourage the tourism and visitors in the state the Himachal Pradesh Tourism has been offering different Manali packages that welcome people to an exotic and mystical world entangled with mountain paths, fruit orchards, reticulated network of flowing streams of the River Beas, snow-laden Himalayan mountain peaks and last but not the least green and lively valleys. In fact no hill station in India is as magnetic as Manali which is why even the British had shifted its Summer Centre in the State to Manali. There are many accommodation options one can look at, and if you are not limited on budget top resorts in Manali and top hotels in Manali offer a luxurious stay to complete your holiday in style.

The list of must visit attractions and the do s you can in and around Manali is so much that you can only explore if you come here with plenty of time at your disposal and of course with no budget constraints. To make your holiday experience more complete in the hill station of Manali book your holidays in the top resorts in Manali, by getting the best deals offered at http://www.thehimalayan.com/. The packages from all the top hotels in Manali now become even more affordable with the Himalayan Resort and Spa.

Most North Indians head to Manali for a cosy honeymoon trip and why not, the hill station offers glorious natural beauty with amazing weather, which is perfect for honeymoon couples. Also, the valley has calm and serene environment that makes up for a perfect setting for honeymooners. And newlyweds need not worry about budgeted accommodation, as the cottages in Manali offer exciting honeymoon packages that will fit your bill perfectly.

There are actually several kinds of celebrations for the newlyweds to enjoy in Manali. If you plan for the honeymoon in summer, you can think of the lazy days spending inside and roaming hand-in-hand at the sunset with the beautiful and scenic beauty of Manali as backdrop. Should it be winter, you can think of the candlelit dinners just you both having enjoying the cuddling up in front of crackling log fires with the Himalayas as the witness. You can even plan romantic day out for n times, with la Champagne inside a hot-air balloon flight, or rent a super bike and go on cruising the roads of the Manali or hire a car and go discovering the beauty of riding along fruit orchards. Or still better you can plan romantic days at bed and breakfast at cottages in Manali or home stays followed by one or two days of sharing nothing but each other’s company in the special cottages. Now that s some bliss called for!

About the Author: To make your holiday experience more complete in the hill station of Manali book your holidays in the top resorts in Manali, by getting the best deals offered at

thehimalayan.com/

.

Source:

isnare.com

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